dsp-10k_20201231.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-40015

 

Viant Technology Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

85-3447553

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

2722 Michelson Drive, Suite 100

Irvine, CA

92612

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (949) 861-8888

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

DSP

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

(Nasdaq Global Select Market)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  YES NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  YES  NO 

As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the registrant’s Class A common stock was not listed on any exchange or over-the-counter market. The registrant’s Class A common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on February 10, 2021.  

As of March 19, 2021, there were 11,500,000 shares and 47,435,559 shares of the registrant’s Class A and Class B common stock, respectively, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

None

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

16

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

52

Item 2.

Properties

52

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

52

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

52

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

53

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

54

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

56

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

76

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

77

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

110

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

110

Item 9B.

Other Information

110

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

111

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

115

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

123

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

125

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

131

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

132

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

134

 

Signatures

135

 

 

 

2


 

PART I

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this Annual Report, including, without limitation, statements regarding our financial position, business strategy and other plans and objectives for our future operations, are forward-looking statements. These statements include declarations regarding our management’s beliefs and current expectations. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “intend,” “consider,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict” or “continue” or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology. Such statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve a number of assumptions, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from expected results. As a result, you should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.

These forward-looking statements are included throughout this Annual Report. Factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the risk factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report.

The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report are based on historical performance and management’s current plans, estimates and expectations in light of information currently available to us and are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. Actual results may differ materially from these expectations due to changes in global, regional or local political, economic, business, competitive, market, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, as well as the other factors described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” Additional factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may also emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of them. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove to be incorrect, our actual results may vary in material respects from what we may have expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. We caution that you should not place undue reliance on any of our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this Annual Report speaks only as of the date on which we make it. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by applicable securities laws.

Item 1. Business.

Our Company

We are an advertising software company. Our software enables the programmatic purchase of advertising, which is the electronification of the advertising buying process. Programmatic advertising is rapidly taking market share from traditional ad sales channels, which require more staffing, offer less transparency and involve higher costs to buyers.

Our demand side platform (“DSP”), Adelphic, is an enterprise software platform that is used by marketers and their advertising agencies to centralize the planning, buying and measurement of their advertising across most channels. Through our technology, a marketer can easily buy ads on desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboards.

Our software is designed to make our customers’ lives easier by enabling marketers and their advertising agencies to plan, buy and measure advertising campaigns in a highly automated fashion. We offer an easy-to-use self-service platform that provides customers with transparency and control over their advertising campaigns.

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Our platform offers customers unique visibility across inventory, allowing them to create customized audience segments and leverage our people-based and strategic partner data to reach target audiences at scale. Our platform delivers a full suite of forecasting, reporting and built-in automation that provides our customers with insights into available inventory based on the desired target audience. We offer advanced forecasting and reporting that empowers our customers with functionality designed to ensure they can accurately measure and improve their return-on-advertising spend (“ROAS”) across channels.

Marketers use our software to deliver advertising campaigns to their desired target audience across channels and formats. Through platform integrations, we offer our customers access to omnichannel advertising inventory, which refers to media available across devices, channels and formats. This includes access to over 300 million unique desktop and mobile users, 114 million connected TVs, 112 million linear TV households, over 200 million unique digital audio users, and 158,000 unique digital billboards, in the U.S. Our platform supports a full range of transaction types including real-time bidding, private marketplace and programmatic guaranteed, allowing customers to easily source and integrate ad inventory directly from publishers and private marketplaces.

We enable deep data access through our data integrations to authenticate user identities across a range of devices. Our matching of people-based identifiers enables us to be the nexus point with more than 70 data partners, providing customers with deep access to people-based data across market verticals such as automotive, entertainment, business to business, retail, consumer packaged goods, travel and tourism, and healthcare. Our proprietary identity graph is matched to more than 250 million users across 115 million households in the U.S., which we believe makes it one of the largest in the industry.

Our customers are advertising buyers including large advertising holding companies, independent advertising agencies, mid-market advertising service organizations as well as marketers that rely on our self-service software platform for their programmatic ad buying needs. We are a trusted partner to our customers and have had a 95% customer satisfaction rating for the last 3 years based on Viant’s Annual Adelphic Customer Satisfaction Survey. Many of our customers use our software as their primary demand side platform.

Our platform is built on people-based data. Using our identity resolution capabilities and identity graph, marketers and their advertising agencies can identify targeted consumers using real-world identifiers rather than relying primarily on cookies to track users. We believe the industry is shifting to a people-based framework to replace the cookie in delivering personalized advertising, particularly for identification. People-based data allows marketers to deliver personalized advertising while being able to accurately link ad impressions across multiple devices and to customer sales, letting them know what they get in return for their advertising dollars. In addition, people-based data allows consumers to know who is collecting their data and what it is being used for, and also gives them the right to delete or stop their use of data for personalized advertising. Many of our competitors rely on cookies for the targeting and measurement of digital advertising but this technology has not been effective at accurately measuring the real impact of a marketer’s ad spend on their business results. Apple’s popular web browser, Safari, currently does not allow third party cookies and Google Chrome has announced plans to entirely disallow third party cookies in their browser in early 2022. This market change has created an increase in demand by marketers actively looking for platforms like ours that offer an alternative to cookie-based tracking, which we believe is strengthening our strategic position.

Programmatic advertising has proven its value to marketers and more organizations are devoting more of their digital ad spend to it. The digital ecosystem continues to evolve and with it programmatic advertising, creating new opportunities and needs for marketers and their agencies. The U.S. programmatic advertising market is expected to grow from $65 billion in 2018 to $140 billion in 2022, a 21% CAGR, according to eMarketer, a market research company that provides insights and trends related to digital marketing, media, and commerce. We focus on ad buyers and believe that our solutions will accelerate the shift of advertising budgets to programmatic advertising. Additionally, as marketers desire more control over programmatic advertising and move some functions of programmatic ad buying in-house, our software platform is designed to address these needs and expands our market opportunity.

4


Our total revenue was $165.3 million, $164.9 million and $108.4 million for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, representing an increase of 0.2% from 2019 to 2020 and 52.1% from 2018 to 2019. We recorded net income of $20.6 million and $9.9 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $31.8 million and $24.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, compared to a net loss of $25.5 million and Adjusted EBITDA loss of $7.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Adjusted EBITDA is a financial measure not presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). For a definition of Adjusted EBITDA, an explanation of our management’s use of this measure and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to our net income or net loss, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Operating and Financial Performance Metrics—Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Our Industry

We believe the key industry trends shaping the advertising market include:

Advertising dollars shifting towards programmatic advertising: We believe the advertising industry is still in the early stages of a shift to programmatic advertising. The ability to transact through real-time-bidding platforms has evolved beyond banner advertising to be used across a wide range of advertising channels and formats, including desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboards. U.S. programmatic advertising is experiencing a rapid increase in adoption and, according to eMarketer, is expected to grow at a 21% CAGR from 2018 to 2022, reaching $94 billion in 2020, $118 billion in 2021 and $140 billion by 2022. U.S. programmatic advertising is forecasted to represent 48% of total U.S. media spend by 2022, increasing from 29% in 2018. The TV industry is undergoing significant disruptions as Internet-enabled connected TV has become a preferred vehicle for streaming video content. The amount of connected TV users in the U.S. is forecasted to increase from 195 million, or 59% of the U.S. population, in 2019 to 226 million, or 66% of the U.S. population, in 2024, according to eMarketer. Connected TV also provides a number of benefits to advertisers, including more accurate control of scale, addressability, and measurement. Marketers are increasingly investing in connected TV as more inventory becomes available. According to eMarketer, 51% of connected TV ad spend was transacted programmatically in 2019 and the share of programmatic will increase to nearly 60% in 2021. In addition, connected TV ad spend is expected to grow from $6 billion in 2019 to $8 billion in 2020 to $18 billion in 2024, a 25% CAGR.

Strong marketer demand for Return-On-Advertising-Spend measurement across all channels: Marketers are looking for a centralized view of their customers, while connecting online and offline purchases to accurately measure ROAS. Return-on-advertising-spend is a critical metric for marketing campaigns. Insights from ROAS across all campaigns inform marketers about what they are getting for their money across all media investments near real-time. Hence, marketers seek tools to track their ROAS across all channels. We believe people-based platforms are able to provide a more accurate measurement of ROAS as compared to cookie-based platforms.

Demand for scaled people-based platforms: Advertising has become more data driven and marketers need to be able to target audiences at the individual and household level while respecting consumer privacy. Internet advertisers in the past have capitalized on anonymous data from cookies to gain insights into users and ad performance. However, increased privacy concerns and changing requirements of browser providers including Google (Chrome) and Apple (Safari) are causing marketers to reduce their reliance on vendors and software platforms that primarily utilize cookies for device identification. In today’s connected world, marketers need to be able to identify their customers and connect with them across multiple channels, devices and formats. This is driving an industry shift away from cookie-based DSPs to scaled people-based DSPs.

Brands directly selecting advertising software solutions: Marketers are increasingly becoming directly involved in the selection of their advertising software solutions as they seek to reduce costs, better leverage their customer data and gain more control over their advertising. These factors have also led to an increase in marketers moving programmatic ad buying functions in-house. The automation of ad-buying technology has enabled fast, accurate and cost-effective decision-making, resulting in ad buying becoming a skillset that an increasing number of Chief Marketing Officers (“CMOs”) want to fully own. According to a recent survey by IAB in 2019, 18% of U.S. brands have completely moved programmatic ad buying in-house, and 51% of U.S. brands have moved a portion of their programmatic ad buying in-house.

5


Our Market Opportunity

We believe that over the long term, our total addressable market is the total global advertising market which, according to eMarketer, is forecasted to grow from $614 billion in 2020 to $846 billion in 2024, an 8% CAGR. Currently, our focus is primarily on the U.S. market, and according to eMarketer, desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboard channels are forecasted to grow from $205 billion in 2020 to $314 billion in 2024 in the U.S., an 11% CAGR, broken into the following segments:

 

Mobile and Desktop: According to eMarketer, U.S. mobile and desktop advertising are forecasted to be a $129.7 billion market in 2020 and forecasted to grow to $218.2 billion in 2024, a 14% CAGR.

 

Connected TV: According to eMarketer, U.S. connected TV advertising is forecasted to be an $8.1 billion market in 2020 and forecasted to grow to $18.3 billion in 2024, a 23% CAGR. Connected TV includes over-the-top (“OTT”) content delivered through a connected device over the internet.

 

Linear TV: According to eMarketer, U.S. linear TV advertising is forecasted to be a $60.0 billion market in 2020 and forecasted to grow to $67.5 billion in 2024, a 3% CAGR.

 

Streaming Audio: According to eMarketer, U.S. digital audio advertising is forecasted to be a $4.5 billion market in 2020 and forecasted to grow to $6.3 billion in 2024, a 9% CAGR.

 

Digital Billboards: According to eMarketer, U.S. billboard advertising is forecasted to be a $2.2 billion market in 2020 and forecasted to grow to $3.6 billion in 2024, a 14% CAGR.

The forecasts above include both programmatic and non-programmatic digital advertising. In recent years, programmatic advertising has represented an increasing portion of total U.S. media spend. According to eMarketer, the U.S. advertising market, as represented by desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboard channels, is forecasted to grow from $205 billion in 2020 to $241 billion in 2021 and $269 billion in 2022.

Our Solution

We provide a software platform that enables marketers and their advertising agencies to plan, buy and measure their advertising across channels. Integrated with our people-based capabilities, we provide our customers with a full suite of forecasting, reporting and automation functionality to make informed decisions around their advertising investments.

Cloud-Based, Self-Service Portal: Our software is available in a self-service interface, providing customers with transparency and control over their advertising campaigns and underlying data infrastructure. Customers can log on to the self-service platform to immediately create, update or re-align campaigns themselves, without having to involve our employees or any third parties.

Omnichannel Demand Side Platform: We are a demand side platform for ad buyers. Marketers and their agencies can use our integrated software platform to efficiently manage omnichannel campaigns and access metrics from each channel to inform decisions in other channels. Our integrations enable the purchase of advertising media across desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboards. Our technology leverages machine learning to identify the best supply partners, formats and impressions based on our customers’ goals.

Advanced Reporting and Measurement: We invest heavily in our measurement capabilities, as we believe this will increase our customers’ usage of our software. Our software and self-service data lake empower customers with differentiated insights, including foot-traffic data reports, multi-touch attribution and ROAS analytics. Leveraging our people-based framework and machine learning algorithms, our platform provides marketers real-time actionable insights throughout an advertising campaign. Our built-in automation enables marketers to optimize digital campaigns designed to achieve their KPI goals.

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People-Based Identification for Advertising: Our identity resolution capabilities and identity graph reduce or eliminate the need for cookies by enabling matching of people-based identifiers, and allow marketers to reach targeted consumers in a privacy-conscious manner, irrespective of device or channel. Our identity graph is matched to more than 250 million users across 115 million households in the U.S., which we believe makes it one of the largest in the industry.

Onboarding: We enable marketers to onboard their first-party data to gain a view into their customers’ top attributes, create targeting segments and easily activate these customer segments. Our simple interface allows marketers to upload audience data with ease and create a unique segment or build look-a-like audiences without the need for a separate data management platform. Our data integrations provide marketers with high match rates, which leads to meaningful audience insights for segmentation and targeting.

Our Strengths

We believe the following attributes and capabilities provide us with long-term competitive advantages:

 

Scalable Self-Service Platform: We offer a self-service platform that enables customers to operate their ad campaigns without extensive involvement of our staff. This dynamic allows us to add new customers and allows customers to scale their spend on our platform in a manner that grows our revenue at a faster pace than the growth of our personnel costs.

 

Centralized Platform: We believe our software platform enables our customers to plan, buy and measure advertising across more channels than our competitors and to centralize the purchase of each type of programmatic media on a single platform. Our supply integrations provide customers with access to over 300 million unique desktop and mobile users, 114 million connected TVs, 112 million linear TV households, over 200 million unique streaming audio users and 158,000 unique digital billboards, in the U.S.

 

Proprietary Technology: We leverage a robust suite of proprietary tools and products in order to enable our customers to utilize our platform and services. We are constantly iterating and developing new tools and products while utilizing our patented technologies and processes. As of December 31, 2020, we have 26 issued patents and 10 additional pending patent applications, which cover many of our proprietary products. As new offerings are developed, we continue to file and obtain patents on the most valuable and innovative products developed at the company.

 

Machine Learning Capabilities: We enable the use of machine learning, workflow automation, automated reporting and other functionalities that allow our customers to update and make thousands of changes automatically to help achieve their desired business outcomes. These capabilities make our customers’ lives easier and improve the performance of their campaigns.

 

Advanced Reporting and Measurement: We invest heavily in our measurement capabilities, as we believe this will increase our customers usage of our software. Our platform measures ROAS across all channels and empowers our customers with real-time insights leveraging people-based data, including foot-traffic reports and multi-touch attribution analytics. Our advanced reporting functionality uses our identity graph that is currently matched to more than 250 million users across 115 million households in the U.S. to provide marketers with a holistic view of measurement across all channels.

 

Differentiated People-Based Capabilities: Our software is built on a people-based framework. We integrate with over 70 data partners using people-based identifiers. We believe this allows for a much more effective and privacy-friendly approach to advertising than using cookies for identification. Our platform is built on a foundation of user consent with advanced consumer opt-out capabilities to keep privacy and security on the forefront.

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Experienced Management Team: Our management team has deep and extensive experience in the advertising technology sector, which we believe provides us with a competitive advantage. This experience of our management team has allowed us to continue to be innovative in developing solutions for our customers.

 

Profitable Business Model: Because we are a self-service platform, as we add new customers and as customers increase the use of our software, we are able to demonstrate strong operating leverage. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, revenue was $165.3 million and 164.9 million, respectively. Our net income was $20.6 million and $9.9 million and our Adjusted EBITDA was $31.8 million and $24.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Our Growth Strategy

We believe that the advertising market is in the early stages of a secular shift towards programmatic advertising. We intend to capitalize on this opportunity by pursuing the following strategies:

 

Continue to invest in our customers’ success: Our platform provides extensive functionality designed to provide our customers with a high level of control and enable them to run the most efficient campaigns. We continue to enhance new customer onboarding and support while investing in training and education for customers to maximize their success with the platform.

 

Add new customers and increase our customers’ usage of our platform: We continue to add functionality to our platform to attract new customers and encourage our customers to increase their usage of our platform. We believe many advertisers are in the early stages of moving a greater percentage of their advertising budgets to programmatic channels. By providing solutions for the planning, buying and measuring of their media spend across all channels we believe we are well positioned to capture the increase in programmatic budgets from new and existing customers.

 

Continue to strengthen our omnichannel partnerships: We believe we have the largest breadth of advertising inventory across channels in our industry landscape. We will continue to invest in the integration of new supply partners across all channels, further broadening and deepening our supply of advertising inventory.

 

Expand our sales and marketing investment: We intend to continue to expand sales and marketing efforts to increase awareness and consideration of our platform and promote the advantages of our people-based framework as cookie-based options continue to decline.

 

Extend our leadership position in people-based advertising: We believe there is significant value in continuing to invest in enhancing our identity resolution capabilities through additional people-based data integrations.

 

Invest in growth through acquisitions: We also intend to invest in acquisitions to offer new products and to capitalize on our large and growing market opportunity. To the extent we find attractive acquisition candidates and business opportunities in the future, we may continue to acquire complementary businesses, products and technologies.

8


Our Platform

 

 

Our platform enables a marketer or their agency to programmatically buy an ad in linear television, a digital billboard on the side of the highway, a streaming ad on connected TVs, an ad in your favorite mobile app or on your favorite podcast or a dynamically personalized ad on any website, all within a single user interface.

The key components of our platform include:

Omnichannel DSP: We offer an omni-channel, people-based DSP that provides enterprise-ready, self-service technology to enable our customers to engage with consumers across all channels, devices, and formats.

 

Comprehensive Forecasting. Our platform allows customers to plan future marketing campaigns based on desired targeting tactics by utilizing historical bid request data to project performance onto available inventory. Customers can easily apply multiple data segmentation filters and see what ad inventory is available and at what price.

 

Easy Campaign Setup. Our intuitive user interface enables marketers to seamlessly move from forecasting to launching live advertising campaigns. Our platform reduces the time from planning a campaign to execution, helping marketers to fluidly execute deterministic cross-channel campaigns using a variety of quality data and supply partners to reach their target audience.

 

Campaign Decisioning. We offer the ability to continuously measure and optimize campaigns by leveraging powerful KPIs directly within platform reports. Marketers have the ability to log on to the self-service platform to immediately pause, update or re-align campaigns, even if they have already started. This granular decision-making ability provides customers more accurate and real-time understanding over the performance of their live campaigns.

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Identity Management: Marketers can easily sync customer data, build custom audiences, extend target audiences and understand audience insights seamlessly within our cloud-based, on-demand platform.

 

Onboarding. Through our simple interface, marketers can easily upload and leverage their first-party data. We enable marketers to onboard their first-party data and instantly gain a view into their customers’ top attributes, create targeting segments and easily activate these customer segments.

 

Look-a-Like Modeling. We help expand the reach of an existing audience segment or prospect list for new customers.

 

Identity Direct Match to More than 70 Data Partners. Our DSP is integrated with more than 70 data partners. We use people-based identifiers to integrate with these data partners, which allows for marketers to achieve high match rates against 280,000 audience segments for use in targeted ad campaigns. Our latest software innovation, Mediator, quickly matches demand and supply and we believe efficiency will increase significantly as we continue to improve the software.

 

Privacy and Security. We believe in giving consumers more transparency, choice, and control over how their data is used in digital advertising. We support most advanced hashing protocols and make data protection a top priority for consumers and customers.

Advanced Reporting: We close the loop on digital and traditional media by linking advertising spend to online and offline sales.

 

Reach and Frequency. Our platform accurately measures how many households and unique users an advertising campaign reached and the frequency of exposures.

 

Cross-Channel Suite. Our cross-channel reporting capabilities equip customers to analyze cross-device and cross-channel campaign impact on sales and other key performance indicators.

 

TV Reporting Suite. Our TV reporting suite gives insights into the impact connected and linear television advertising has on driving digital engagement like website visits or conversions, as well as offline sales. These insights create better visibility into the true ROAS of TV ad campaigns.

 

Multi-Touch Attribution (“MTA”). Our MTA suite gives customers the ability to report on six different attribution models, ingest online and offline files and gain visibility into consumer purchase pathways. The resulting holistic view of ad performance enables customers to close the loop in measurement and better link spend to sales.

 

Foot Traffic Attribution. Our foot traffic data reporting capabilities allow customers to analyze the impact of their ad campaigns on driving visits to a physical location.

 

Digital Billboard Reporting Suite. Our digital billboard reporting suite provides a holistic view of ad spend, giving customers real-time insights into their digital billboard ad performance and helping customers optimize budgets by allocating ad spend on effective digital billboards and venue types.

 

Automated Brand Surveys. Customers using our reporting capabilities can generate on-demand surveys to better gauge the effectiveness of advertising campaigns. Brand surveys deliver automated feedback and give customers the ability to create accurate benchmarks for historical performance and for measurement of advertising performance with a real-time feedback loop.

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Our platform is built with ad buyers in mind and offers many in-depth features that give buyers the highest levels of control, which helps ensure they are running the most efficient campaigns possible. This includes:

 

Bulk Functionality: Our platform is built to ease the lives of programmatic traders. With Adelphic, traders can mass edit ad orders and campaigns, instead of making individual changes one at a time, saving significant time. For example, if a trader wants to change the bid price for all 1,000 of their ad orders, they could simply download a form and upload it, rather than wasting time by editing each ad order one by one.

 

API Capabilities: Adelphic provides ease of integration using APIs and tools. The API capabilities provide bilateral data syndication into or out of the platform for trafficking and reporting in formats easily accepted by business intelligence teams for programmatic traders. With these, traders can maintain customer identities with a fully integrated platform that links devices and offline activities to real people and seamlessly execute and measure campaigns.

 

Machine Learning Algorithms: Our built-in advanced machine learning technology analyzes millions of impressions and data points every second. Our algorithms find optimal bid prices for maximizing performance and scale across all major KPIs, allowing our customers to strengthen their campaign efforts and build confidence in programmatic campaign performance.

Our Technology and Development

Rapid and continuing innovation is a core driver of our business success and our corporate culture. Our product and engineering team is responsible for the design, development and testing of our platform. We are committed to continuous innovation and rapid introduction of new technologies, features and functionality that bring value to our customers. We expect technology and development expense and capitalized software development costs to increase as we continue to invest in the development of our platform to support additional features and functions, such as enhancement of our user interface and automation functions, and to increase the number of advertising and data inventory integrations in various channels.

The technical infrastructure for our platform is currently managed through third-party web hosting services providers and to a limited extent, our own servers which are located at a third-party data center facility. We generally enter into one to two year agreements with our web hosting providers.

Our Customers

Our customers consist of purchasers of programmatic advertising inventory. We define an Active Customer as a customer that had total aggregate revenue ex-TAC of at least $5,000 through our platform during the previous twelve months. We had 264 and 277 Active Customers for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, in each case consisting of advertising buyers, including large advertising holding companies, independent advertising agencies, mid-market advertising service organizations as well as marketers relying on our self-service software platform for their programmatic ad buying needs. For a detailed discussion of Active Customers, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Key Operating and Financial Performance Metrics—Number of Active Customers and Average Revenue ex-TAC per Active Customer.” Revenue ex-TAC is a non-GAAP measure. For a detailed discussion of our key operating and financial performance metrics and a reconciliation of revenue ex-TAC to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated in accordance with GAAP, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Key Operating and Financial Performance Metrics—Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

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Many of the advertising agencies that we work with are owned by holding companies, where decision-making is generally highly decentralized such that purchasing decisions are made, and relationships with advertisers are located, at the agency, local branch or division level. Our customer count includes only those parties with which we have a billing relationship. We contract with our customers either through master service agreements or insertion orders. Our agreements do not contain any material commitments on behalf of customers to use our platform to purchase ad inventory or use other features. Our agreements with customers generally do not have a specified term, and are generally terminable at any time by either party upon specified notice periods, typically ranging from 30 to 90 days. Insertion orders are generally limited in scope and can be reduced or canceled by a buyer without penalty.

Our Advertising and Data Supply

We obtain digital advertising inventory primarily through our integrations with supply side platforms (“SSPs”) and directly with publishers. We believe that our integrations across every channel give us the most robust omnichannel integrations of any single platform. These suppliers provide us with access to a breadth of programmatic advertising inventory across desktop, mobile, connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboards.

We enable deep data access through our integrations with over 70 leading data companies, giving our customers access to data across key industry verticals, including auto, retail, consumer packaged goods, travel and health. Customers onboard their own first-party data onto our platform, without the need of a separate data management platform. Our operation of Myspace.com provides certain data assets and intellectual property that we may leverage to continue to offer innovative products and services to our clients.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our platform through a direct sales team focused on business development across all markets, including sales to new customers and revenue growth within existing customers. We have an experienced sales team of 75 sellers across the United States who are focused on selling access to our platform in our target markets, building and nurturing relationships with global brands and agencies. We use a consultative sales approach focused on educating existing and potential customers on our platform capabilities, and training clients to use our platform. We offer a formal certification program, Programmatic University and Adelphic Certification, that covers programmatic industry trends, technology capabilities and time-saving workflows and have an online knowledge base with robust documentation. We provide dedicated customer support and work with customers as they set up and optimize their campaigns, assist with delivery against key performance indicators and goals, and provide post-campaign support and recommendations.

We tailor our contracts and terms to the needs of our customers, including by offering our three different pricing options: a percentage of spend option, a subscription option and a fixed CPM pricing option. Customers can use our platform on a self-service basis or can enlist our services to execute their campaigns.

Our marketing efforts are focused on increasing awareness and consideration for our brands, executing thought-leadership initiatives, participating in industry events, creating comprehensive sales support materials and generating new customer leads. We seek to accomplish these objectives by presenting at industry conferences, hosting customer conferences, publishing white papers and research, public relations activities, advertising campaigns and social media presence.

Privacy and Data Protection

Modern consumers use multiple platforms to learn about and purchase products and services, and consumers have come to expect a seamless experience across all channels. This challenges marketing organizations to balance the demands of the consumer and the most effective advertising techniques with responsible, privacy-compliant methods of managing data internally and with advertising technology intermediaries.

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We believe strongly in providing consumers with more visibility and control over their data. We have prioritized protecting the privacy of consumers and their data and offer consumers a robust suite of tools to manage their data. We have policies and operational practices governing our use of data that are designed to actively promote a set of meaningful privacy guidelines, including advanced consumer opt-out capability, best in class security measures, encryption of data using robust industry standards, proactive identification of threats and regular penetration testing. When giving our customers access to personal data, we provide that data in a “hashed,” or de-identified, manner. We have dedicated personnel in place to oversee our compliance with the data protection regulations that govern our business activities in the jurisdictions in which we operate.

The U.S. Congress and state legislatures, along with federal regulatory authorities, have recently increased their attention on matters concerning the collection and use of consumer data, including relating to internet-based advertising. Data privacy legislation has been introduced in the U.S. Congress, and California has enacted broad-based privacy legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act. State legislatures outside of California have proposed, and in certain cases enacted, a variety of types of data privacy legislation. Many non-U.S. jurisdictions have also enacted or are developing laws and regulations governing the collection and use of personal data.

We expect the trend of enacting and revising data protection laws to continue and that new and expanded data privacy legislation in various forms will be implemented in the U.S. and in other countries around the globe.

Competition

Our industry is highly competitive and fragmented. We compete with smaller, privately-held companies, along with public companies such as the Trade Desk, and with divisions of large, well-established companies such as Google and Amazon. The competitive landscape in recent years has been affected by consolidation and limited investment in new startups in our industry and there are few competitors with self-service capabilities. Our long history and time in the market with customers has given us significant advantages in terms of platform development and expertise, as well as a long development lead ahead of new entrants. We believe that we compete primarily based on the performance of campaigns running on our platform, capabilities of our platform, our identity resolution capabilities, our omnichannel capabilities and our advance reporting capabilities. We believe that we are differentiated from our competitors in the following areas:

 

we are an independent technology company focused on serving advertising agencies and marketers on the buy-side of our industry;

 

our platform is self-service and easy to use;

 

we offer our DSP in an integrated manner with our people-based capabilities, so customers do not need to use separate providers for onboarding client information and ad and data purchasing services;

 

our platform provides comprehensive access to a wide range of inventory types across a broad range of channels;

 

our platform provides comprehensive access to a wide range of data partners across a broad range of industry verticals and channels to enable precise audience targeting and measurement;

 

our identity resolution capabilities help marketers plan, buy and measure their campaigns more effectively;

 

we provide customer service and satisfaction; and

 

we provide flexible pricing options to support a wide variety of customers.

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Our Human Capital

We are a founder-led business and believe our employees and culture are key to our success. Our employees tend to be long tenured for our industry, with average tenure of the leadership team of nearly 12 years and more than 4 years across all employees. Our business and our culture are anchored on four core values that embody our resourceful mentality: “Live,” “Lead,” “Create” and “Figure It Out.” We believe we attract talented employees to our company and sophisticated customers to our platform in large part because of our vision and unwavering commitment to using cutting-edge technologies to create products that help advance the advertising industry.

As of December 31, 2020, we had 289 employees in 10 offices around the United States. Our team draws from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experiences across technology and advertising industries.

Diversity and Inclusion

We are committed to fostering a culture of inclusion where all employees feel valued and included. We believe our greatest asset is the people who work for us, and as part of our investment in our people, we prioritize diversity and inclusion. Our goal is to create a culture where we value, respect, and provide fair treatment and opportunities for all employees. Each year, we conduct an annual survey to give employees the opportunity to provide feedback on our management team and culture. This survey helps drive new programs that continue the development of our inclusive culture. Our leaders review the survey feedback and work with their teams to initiate new initiatives based on the results.

We are committed to developing a diverse environment through recruiting, development programs, community involvement and fostering conversations about differences.  

Talent Development

Even though Viant has been around for 20+ years, our culture still reflects an entrepreneurial spirit. We empower employees to develop their skills and abilities by following our core values and acting on great ideas regardless of their role or function. We encourage employees at all levels to be creative and come up with ideas that can help the business grow. We work to provide an environment where talented individuals and teams can take control of their career growth. We provide a wide range of learning and development opportunities in both individual and group settings.

Compensation and Benefits

We provide compensation and benefits programs to help meet the needs of our employees and reward their efforts and contributions. We use internal and external resources to help develop plans that are fair and reward our employees’ commitment and performance with the goal of attracting and retaining high performing individuals.

In addition to salaries, we provide competitive compensation programs that are in line with our peers and industry. These programs may include bonuses, equity awards, 401(k) plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave and employee assistance programs among many others.

Health, Safety and Wellness

We strive to provide a work environment where our employees feel safe and are comfortable working. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we immediately implemented a teleworking program that complied with all applicable government regulations and protected our employees while allowing them to continue to be effective in their jobs. We continue to stay updated on changes in government regulations and implement them to meet our employees’ changing health and wellness needs.

Intellectual Property

The protection of our technology and intellectual property is an important component of our success. We rely on intellectual property laws, including trade secret, copyright, patent and trademark laws in the U.S. and abroad, and use contracts, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, employee disclosure and invention assignment agreements and other contractual rights to protect our intellectual property.

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As of December 31, 2020, we held 26 issued patents, 10 pending patent applications and 306 issued trademarks. Our issued patents are scheduled to expire between 2025 and 2038. We continually review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property. In addition to the intellectual property relating to the operation of Adelphic and our people-based framework, we own intellectual property related to our owned site, Myspace.com. Of our issued patents, 11 relate to our platform and our people-based framework, and 15 relate to the Myspace.com site.

Corporate Information

Viant was founded in 1999 by Tim, Chris and Russ Vanderhook who continue to lead our company today. Viant has been at the forefront of digital advertising technology since its inception and has demonstrated its ability to grow, thrive, and innovate as competitors have come and gone. In 2011, Viant acquired the social network website Myspace.com. In 2011, Tim and Chris Vanderhook started Xumo, a connected TV streaming service, which was acquired by Comcast Corp. in 2020. In 2015, Viant completed its first people-based integration. Viant remained independent until 2016, when Time Inc. acquired a 60% interest in Viant through its subsidiary, Viant Technology Holding Inc. (the “Former Holdco”). That interest was later acquired by Meredith Corporation when it acquired Time Inc. in 2018. In 2017, the Company purchased Adelphic, a DSP. Since the Adelphic acquisition, the Company has materially transformed from a full-service provider of digital advertising solutions into a leading DSP that enables marketers and their advertising agencies to centralize the planning, buying and measurement of their media investments using a people-based framework. Viant has grown from a business operating from a home office to a company with nearly 300 employees in 10 offices throughout the U.S. In 2019, Viant entered into an agreement that resulted in the retirement of the Former Holdco’s interest in Viant and Tim Vanderhook, Chris Vanderhook and Four Brothers 2 LLC (the “Vanderhook Parties”) acquired that 60% interest in the Company (the “2019 Former Holdco transaction”), allowing it to once again become an independent company. Viant Technology Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on October 9, 2020. In connection with the consummation of our initial public offering (the “IPO”), Viant Technology Inc. became the sole managing member of Viant Technology LLC. We completed the IPO of our Class A common stock on February 12, 2021. Our principal executive offices are located at 2722 Michelson Drive, Suite 100, Irvine, CA 92612 and our telephone number is (949) 861-8888. Our website address is www.viantinc.com.

The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our Annual Report can be downloaded from the SEC’s website. We will file with or furnish to the SEC periodic reports and other information. We furnish or make available to our stockholders annual reports containing our audited financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. We also furnish or make available to our stockholders quarterly reports containing our unaudited interim financial information, for the first three fiscal quarters of each fiscal year. We make our periodic reports and other information filed with or furnished to the SEC available, free of charge, through our website, as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports and other information are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information contained on our website or linked therein or otherwise connected thereto does not constitute part of nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and uncertainties described below, together with all other information contained in this Annual Report and in our other public filings, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this Annual Report. The occurrence of any of the following risks, as well as any risks or uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe to be material, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow, in which case, the trading price of our Class A common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Summary of Factors That May Affect Our Future Results

The following summarizes the principal factors that make an investment in the Company speculative or risky. This summary should be read in conjunction with the remainder of this “Risk Factors” section and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business. The occurrence of any of these risks could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or growth prospects or cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements we have made in this report and those we may make from time to time. You should consider all of the risk factors described in our public filings when evaluating our business.

 

our ability to add new customers, effectively educate and train our existing customers on how to make full use of our platform and increase the usage of our platform by our customers;

 

failure to realize the expected benefits of an industry shift away from cookie-based consumer tracking;

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and other sustained adverse market events on our and our customers’ business operations;

 

our ability to innovate, effectively manage our growth and make the right investment decisions;

 

the relatively new and evolving market for programmatic buying for advertising campaigns;

 

the loss of a significant amount of revenue from select advertising agencies as customers;

 

fluctuations in our operating results and the varying nature, in terms of mix, of our different pricing options;

 

our lengthy sales cycle and payment-related risks;

 

diminishment of, or failure to grow, our access to advertising inventory;

 

the intensely competitive nature of the market in which we participate; and

 

the impact on our business of data privacy regulation or data privacy breaches.

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Risks Related to Our Business

Our success and revenue growth is dependent on adding new customers, effectively educating and training our existing customers on how to make full use of our platform and increasing usage of our platform by our customers.

Our success is dependent on regularly adding new customers and increasing our customers’ usage of our platform. Our contracts and relationships with customers generally do not include long-term or exclusive obligations requiring them to use our platform or maintain or increase their use of our platform. Our customers typically have relationships with numerous providers and can use both our platform and those of our competitors without incurring significant costs or disruption. Our customers may also choose to decrease their overall advertising spend for any reason, including if they do not believe they are receiving a sufficient return on their advertising spend. Accordingly, we must continually work to win new customers and retain existing customers, increase their usage of our platform and capture a larger share of their advertising spend. We may not be successful at educating and training customers, particularly our newer customers, on how to use our platform, in particular our advanced reporting tools, in order for our customers to get the most benefit from our platform and increase their usage. If these efforts are unsuccessful or customers decide not to continue to maintain or increase their usage of our platform for any other reason, or if we fail to attract new customers, our revenue could fail to grow or decline, which would materially and adversely harm our business, operating results and financial condition. We cannot assure you that our customers will continue to use and increase their spend on our platform or that we will be able to attract a sufficient number of new customers to continue to grow our business and revenue. If customers representing a significant portion of our business decide to materially reduce their use of our platform or cease using our platform altogether, our revenue could be significantly reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. We may not be able to replace customers who decrease or cease their usage of our platform with new customers that will use our platform to the same extent.

We may not realize the expected benefits of an industry shift away from cookie-based consumer tracking as such shift may not occur as rapidly as we expect or may not be realized at all.

We expect to benefit as compared to others in our industry from marketers reducing their reliance on vendors and software platforms that utilize third-party cookies for tracking. However, we cannot assure you that the shift away from cookie-based consumer tracking will happen as rapidly as we expect or that such shift will occur at all. Additionally, even if the shift away from cookie-based consumer tracking does occur, we may not be as successful in growing our business and increasing our revenue as we expect. For example, marketers may not shift their business away from our competitors if our competitors are successful in developing alternative products or services that are not significantly reliant on the cookie-based framework.

The effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and other sustained adverse market events have had, and could in the future have, an adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our business and operations have been and could in the future be adversely affected by health epidemics, such as the global COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to control its spread have curtailed the movement of people, goods and services worldwide, including in the regions in which we and our customers and partners operate, and are significantly impacting economic activity and financial markets. Many marketers, particularly those in the travel, retail and automotive industries, have decreased or paused their advertising spending as a response to the economic uncertainty, decline in business activity, and other COVID-19-related impacts, which has negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our revenue and results of operations, the extent and duration of which we may not be able to accurately predict. The spread of an infectious disease may also result in, and, in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, regional quarantines, labor shortages or stoppages, changes in consumer purchasing patterns, disruptions to service providers’ ability to deliver data on a timely basis, or at all, and overall economic instability.

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A recession, depression or other sustained adverse market events resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially and adversely affect our business and that of our customers or potential customers. Our customers’ and potential customers’ businesses or cash flows have been and may continue to be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led and may continue to lead them to reduce their advertising spending and delay their advertising initiatives or technology spending, or attempt to renegotiate contracts and obtain concessions, which may materially and negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Our customers may also seek adjustments to their payment terms, delay making payments or default on their payables, any of which may impact the timely receipt and/or collectability of our receivables. Typically, we are contractually required to pay advertising inventory and data suppliers within a negotiated period of time, regardless of whether our customers pay us on time, or at all, and we may not be able to renegotiate better terms. As a result, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted if the business or financial condition of our customers and marketers is negatively affected by the pandemic.

Our operations are subject to a range of external factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic that are not within our control. We have taken precautionary measures intended to minimize the risk of the spread of the virus to our employees, partners and customers, and the communities in which we operate. A wide range of governmental restrictions has also been imposed on our employees’, customers’ and partners’ physical movement to limit the spread of COVID-19. There can be no assurance that precautionary measures, whether adopted by us or imposed by others, will be effective, and such measures could negatively affect our sales, marketing, and customer service efforts, delay and lengthen our sales cycles, decrease our employees’ or customers’ or partners’ productivity, or create operational or other challenges, any of which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

The economic uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has made and may continue to make it difficult for us to forecast revenue and operating results and to make decisions regarding operational cost structures and investments. Our business depends on the overall demand for advertising and on the economic health of our customers that benefit from our platform. Economic downturns or unstable market conditions may cause our customers to decrease their advertising budgets, which could reduce usage of our platform and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. We have committed, and we plan to continue to commit, resources to grow our business, including to expand our employee base and develop our platform and systems, and such investments may not yield anticipated returns, particularly if worldwide business activity continues to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depend on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, and if we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business may be harmed. Such future developments may include, among others, the duration and spread of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and government actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, the level of relief efforts designed to help businesses and consumers, including any declines in such levels, impact on our customers and our sales cycles, impact on our customer, industry or employee events, and effect on our advertising inventory partners.

Our results may also fluctuate unpredictably as and to the extent there is a recovery from the pandemic and a return to non-pandemic business conditions. We cannot predict the impact of a post-pandemic recovery on the economy, our customers or consumer media consumption patterns or the degree to which certain trends, such as the growth in demand for our connected TV offering, will continue.

If we fail to innovate and make the right investment decisions in our offerings and platform, we may not attract and retain customers and our revenue and results of operations may decline.

Our industry is subject to rapid and frequent changes in technology, evolving customer needs and the frequent introduction by our competitors of new and enhanced offerings. We must regularly make investment decisions regarding offerings and technology to maintain the technological competitiveness of our products and services and meet customer demand and evolving industry standards. The complexity and uncertainty regarding the development of new technologies and the extent and timing of market acceptance of innovative products and services create difficulties in maintaining this competitiveness. The success of any enhancement or new solution depends on many factors, including timely completion, adequate quality testing, appropriate introduction and market acceptance. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our offerings could become technologically or commercially obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer. If new or existing competitors have more attractive offerings, we may lose customers or customers may decrease their use of our platform. New customer demands, superior competitive offerings or new industry standards could require us to make unanticipated and costly changes to our platform or business model.

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If we fail to enhance our current products and services or fail to develop new products to adapt to our rapidly changing industry or to evolving customer needs, demand for our platform could decrease and our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The market for programmatic buying for advertising campaigns is relatively new and evolving. If this market develops slower or differently than we expect, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.

We derive revenue from the programmatic purchase of advertising on our platform. We expect that programmatic ad buying will continue to be our primary source of revenue for the foreseeable future, and that our revenue growth will largely depend on increasing our customers’ usage of our platform. While the market for programmatic ad buying for desktop and mobile display ads is relatively established, the market in other channels is still emerging, and our current and potential customers may not shift quickly enough to programmatic ad buying from other buying methods, which would reduce our growth potential. If the market for programmatic ad buying deteriorates or develops more slowly than we expect, it could reduce demand for our platform, and our business, growth prospects and financial condition would be adversely affected.

In particular, the market for programmatic buying for advertising campaigns across multiple advertising channels, including connected TV, linear TV, streaming audio and digital billboard channels is an emerging market. Our ability to provide capabilities across multiple advertising channels, which we refer to as omnichannel, may be constrained if we are not be able to maintain or grow advertising inventory for such channels, and some of our omnichannel offerings may not gain market acceptance. We may not be able to accurately predict changes in overall industry demand for the channels in which we operate and cannot assure you that our investment in channel development will correspond to any such changes. For example, we cannot predict whether the growth in demand for our connected TV offering will continue. Furthermore, if our channel mix changes due to a shift in customer demand, such as customers shifting their usage more quickly or more extensively than expected to channels in which we have relatively less functionality, features, or inventory, such as linear TV, then demand for our platform could decrease, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We receive a significant amount of revenue from a select number of advertising agency holding companies, owning various advertising agencies, and the loss of advertising agencies as customers could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

A significant amount of our revenue comes from advertising agencies. We had 264 Active Customers for the year ended December 31, 2020, consisting primarily of advertising agencies. Many of these agencies are owned by advertising agency holding companies, where decision making is generally highly decentralized such that purchasing decisions are made, and relationships with marketers are located, at the agency, local branch or division level. If all of our individual customer contractual relationships were aggregated at the holding company level, two advertising agency holding companies would represent 13.3% and 13.2%, respectively, of our revenue for 2020. Due to the highly decentralized operations and decision-making at the agencies owned by each of these advertising agency holding companies, we consider the individual agencies rather than the holding company to be our customers.

Often, we enter into separate contracts and billing relationships with the individual agencies and account for them as separate customers. However, some holding companies for these agencies may choose to exert control over the individual agencies in the future. If so, any loss of relationships with such holding companies and, consequently, of their agencies, local branches or divisions, as customers could significantly harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

We do not have exclusive relationships with advertising agencies and we depend on agencies to work with us as they embark on advertising campaigns for their clients. The loss of such agencies could significantly harm our business, operating results and financial condition. If we fail to maintain satisfactory relationships with an advertising agency, we risk losing business from the marketers represented by that agency.

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Marketers may change advertising agencies. If a marketer switches from an agency that utilizes our platform to one that does not, we could lose revenue from that marketer. In addition, some advertising agencies have strong relationships with competing DSPs or other platforms and may direct their marketers to such other platforms.

We may experience fluctuations in our operating results, which could make our future operating results difficult to predict or cause our operating results to fall below securities analysts’ and investors’ expectations.

Our quarterly and annual operating results have fluctuated in the past and we expect our future operating results to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. In particular, we offer our customers a choice of three different pricing options: a percentage of spend option, a subscription option and a fixed cost per mille (“CPM”) pricing option. We also offer our customers the ability to use our services to aid them in data management, media execution and advanced reporting. Our revenue and revenue ex-TAC vary across these different pricing and service options, and therefore our results may vary based on the mix of pricing and service options chosen by customers in any given period. The varying nature of our pricing mix between periods therefore may make it more difficult for us to forecast our future operating results. Further, variation in our pricing mix may make it more difficult to make comparisons between prior, current and future periods. Period-to-period comparisons of our operating results should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance. Fluctuations in our operating results could cause our performance to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, and adversely affect the price of our Class A common stock. Because our business is changing and evolving rapidly, and the macroeconomic environment continues to evolve as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our historical operating results may not be necessarily indicative of our future operating results. It is also difficult to predict the impact of a post-pandemic recovery on our business and operating results. In addition to changes in terms of mix of our different pricing options, factors that may cause our operating results to fluctuate include the following:

 

changes in demand for our platform, including those related to the seasonal nature of our customers’ spending on digital advertising campaigns;

 

changes in our pricing policies, the pricing policies of our competitors and the pricing or availability of inventory, data or other third-party services;

 

changes in our customer base and platform offerings;

 

the addition or loss of advertising agencies and marketers as customers;

 

changes in advertising budget allocations, agency affiliations or marketing strategies;

 

changes to our channel mix (including, for example, changes in demand for connected TV);

 

changes and uncertainty in the regulatory and business environment for us or customers (for example, when Apple or Google change policies for their browsers and operating systems);

 

changes in the economic prospects of marketers or the economy generally (due to COVID-19, or otherwise), which could alter marketers’ spending priorities, or could increase the time or costs required to complete advertising inventory sales;

 

changes in the availability of advertising inventory or in the cost of reaching end consumers through digital advertising;

 

disruptions or outages on our platform;

 

the introduction of new technologies or offerings by our competitors;

 

changes in our capital expenditures as we acquire the hardware, equipment and other assets required to support our business;

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timing differences between our payments for advertising inventory and our collection of related advertising revenue;

 

the length and unpredictability of our sales cycle;

 

costs related to acquisitions of businesses or technologies, or employee recruiting; and

 

shifting views and behaviors of consumers concerning use of data.

Based upon the factors above and others beyond our control, we have a limited ability to forecast our future revenue, costs and expenses, and, as a result, our operating results may, from time to time, fall below our estimates or the expectations of securities analysts and investors.

We often have long sales cycles, which can result in significant time between initial contact with a prospect and execution of a customer agreement, making it difficult to project when, if at all, we will obtain new customers and when we will generate revenue from those customers.

Our sales cycle, from initial contact to contract execution and implementation, can take significant time. As part of our sales cycle, we may incur significant expenses before we generate any revenue from a prospective customer. We have no assurance that the substantial time and money spent on our sales efforts will generate significant revenue. If conditions in the marketplace, generally or with a specific prospective customer, change negatively, it is possible that we will be unable to recover any of these expenses. Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use, technical capabilities and benefits of our platform. Some of our customers undertake an evaluation process that frequently involves not only our platform but also the offerings of our competitors. As a result, it is difficult to predict when we will obtain new customers and begin generating revenue from these new customers. Even if our sales efforts result in obtaining a new customer, the customer controls when and to what extent it uses our platform and therefore the amount of revenue we generate, and it may not sufficiently justify the expenses incurred to acquire the customer and the related training support. As a result, we may not be able to add customers, or generate revenue, as quickly as we may expect, which could harm our growth prospects.

Customers have the option to use our platform on a self-service basis, which requires us to commit substantial time and expenses towards training potential customers on how to make full use of our platform. If we fail to offer sufficient customer training and support for our platform, we may not be able to attract new customers or maintain our current customers.

Because we operate a platform that has many powerful tools and that customers can choose to use on a self-service basis, we are often required to spend a substantial amount of time and effort educating and training current customers and potential customers on how to make full use of our platform. Because potential customers may already be trained to use our competitors’ platforms, we are also required to spend a significant amount of time cultivating relationships with those potential customers to ensure they understand the potential benefits of our platform and this relationship building process can take many months and may not result in us winning an opportunity with any given potential customer. As a result, customer training and support is critical for the successful and continued use of our platform and for maintaining and increasing spend through our platform from existing and new customers.

Providing this training and support requires that our platform operations personnel have specific domain knowledge and expertise, making it more difficult for us to hire qualified personnel and to scale up our support operations due to the extensive training required. The importance of high-quality customer service will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. If we are not responsive and proactive regarding our customers’ advertising needs, or do not provide effective support for our customers’ advertising campaigns, our ability to retain our existing customers would suffer and our reputation with existing or potential customers would be harmed, which would negatively impact our business.

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We are subject to payment-related risks and if our customers do not pay, or dispute their invoices, our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Many of our contracts with advertising agencies provide that if the marketer does not pay the agency, the agency is not liable to us, and we must seek payment solely from the marketer, a type of arrangement called sequential liability. The credit risk associated with these arrangements may vary depending on the nature of an advertising agency’s aggregated marketer base and the credit risk of the agency itself. We may also be involved in disputes with agencies and their marketers over the operation of our platform, the terms of our agreements or our billings for purchases made by them through our platform. When we are unable to collect or make adjustments to our bills to customers, we incur write-offs for bad debt, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations for the periods in which the write-offs occur. In the future, bad debt may exceed reserves for such contingencies and our bad debt exposure may increase over time. Any increase in write-offs for bad debt could have a materially negative effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Furthermore, we are generally contractually required to pay suppliers of advertising inventory and data within a negotiated period of time, regardless of whether our customers pay us on time, or at all. While we attempt to negotiate long payment periods with our suppliers and shorter periods from our customers, we are not always successful. As a result, our accounts payable are often due on shorter cycles than our accounts receivables, requiring us to remit payments from our own funds, and accept the risk of bad debt.

This payment process will increasingly consume working capital if we continue to be successful in growing our business. In addition, like many companies in our industry, we often experience slow payment by advertising agencies. In this regard, we had average days sales outstanding, or DSO, of 64 days, and average days payable outstanding, or DPO, of 62 for the year ended December 31, 2020. We compute our average DSO as of a given month end based on a weighted average of outstanding accounts receivable. Specifically, the DSO is calculated by multiplying the percentage of accounts receivable outstanding for each monthly billing period by the number of days outstanding related to each billing period and then summing the weighted days outstanding. We compute our DPO as of a given month end by dividing our trade payables (including accrued liabilities) by the average daily cost of media, data, other direct costs and certain operating expenses over the last four months. Historically, our DSOs have fluctuated over time. If our DSOs increase significantly, and we are unable to borrow against these receivables on commercially acceptable terms, our working capital availability could be reduced, and as a consequence our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely impacted.

Due to this potential imbalance in our DSOs and DPOs, we may rely on our credit facility to partially or completely fund our working capital requirements. We cannot assure you that as we continue to grow, our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us under the credit facility in an amount sufficient to fund our working capital needs. If our cash flows and credit facility borrowings are insufficient to fund our working capital requirements, we may not be able to grow at the rate we currently expect or at all. In addition, in the absence of sufficient cash flows from operations, we might be unable to meet our obligations under our credit facility and we may therefore be at risk of default thereunder. We cannot assure you that we would be able to access additional financing or increase our borrowing or borrowing capacity under our current or any future credit facility on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

If our access to advertising inventory is diminished or fails to grow, our revenue could decline and our growth could be impeded.

We must maintain a consistent supply of ad inventory. Our success depends on our ability to secure inventory on reasonable terms across a broad range of advertising inventory partners in various verticals and formats. The amount, quality and cost of inventory available to us can change at any time. If our relationships with any of our significant suppliers were to cease, or if the material terms of these relationships were to change unfavorably, our business would be negatively impacted. Our suppliers are generally not bound by long-term contracts. As a result, there is no guarantee that we will have access to a consistent supply of inventory on favorable terms. Inventory suppliers control the sales process for the inventory they supply, and their processes may not always work in our favor. For example, suppliers may place restrictions on the use of their inventory, including prohibiting the placement of advertisements on behalf of specific marketers.

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As new types of inventory, such as digital advertising for television, become more readily available, we will need to expend significant resources to ensure we have access to such new inventory. Although television advertising is a large market, only a relatively small percentage of it is currently purchased programmatically. We are investing heavily in our programmatic television offering, including by increasing our workforce and by adding new features, functions and integrations to our platform. If the digital television advertising market does not grow as we anticipate or we fail to successfully serve such a market, our growth prospects could be harmed.

Our success depends on consistently adding valued inventory in a cost-effective manner. If we are unable to maintain a consistent supply of inventory for any reason, customer retention and loyalty, and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

If our access to people-based data is diminished, the effectiveness of our platform would be decreased, which could harm our operating results and financial condition.

Much of the data that we use is obtained through integrations with third-party data suppliers. We are dependent upon our ability to obtain necessary data licenses on commercially reasonable terms. We could suffer material adverse consequences if we were unable to obtain data through our integrations with data suppliers. Our ability to serve particular customers is also enhanced when such customers upload their own first-party data. Our operation of our platform and access to data could be negatively affected if, due to legal, contractual, privacy, market optics, competition or other economic concerns, third parties cease entering into data integration agreements with us or customers cease uploading their data to our platform. Additionally, we could terminate relationships with our data suppliers if they fail to adhere to our data quality and privacy standards.

Furthermore, digital advertising and in-app advertising are largely dependent on established technology companies and their operation of the most commonly used Internet browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari), devices and operating systems (Android and iOS). These companies may change the operations or policies of their browsers, devices and operating systems in a manner that fundamentally changes our ability to operate our platform or use or collect data. Users of these browsers, devices or operating systems may also adjust their behaviors and use of technology in ways that change our ability to collect data. Digital advertising and in-app advertising are also dependent, in part, on internet protocols and the practices of internet service providers, including IP address allocation. Changes that these providers make to their practices, or adoption of new internet protocols, may materially limit or alter the availability of data. A limitation or alteration of the availability of data in any of these or other instances may have a material impact on the advertising technology industry, which could decrease advertising budgets and subsequently reduce our revenue and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

If we were to lose access to significant amounts of the data that enables our people-based framework, our ability to provide products and services to our customers could be materially and adversely impacted, which could be materially adverse to our business, operating results and financial condition.

If we do not effectively grow and train our sales and support teams, we may be unable to add new customers or increase usage of our platform by our existing customers and our business will be adversely affected.

We are substantially dependent on our sales and support teams to obtain new customers and to increase usage of our platform by our existing customers. We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, integrating and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth. Due to the complexity of our platform, a significant time lag exists between the hiring date of sales and support personnel and the time when they become fully productive. Our recent and planned hires may not become productive as quickly as we expect, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we do business or plan to do business. If we are unable to hire and train sufficient numbers of effective sales personnel, or the sales personnel are not successful in obtaining new customers or increasing our existing customers’ spend with us, our business will be adversely affected.

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As our costs increase, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to sustain profitability.

We have expended significant resources to grow our business in recent years by increasing the offerings of our platform and growing our number of employees and expanding our number of offices in the United States. We anticipate continued growth that could require substantial financial and other resources to, among other things:

 

develop our platform, including by investing in our engineering team, creating, acquiring or licensing new products or features, and improving the functionality, availability and security of our platform;

 

improve our technology infrastructure, including investing in internal technology development and acquiring outside technologies;

 

cover general and administrative expenses, including legal, accounting and other expenses necessary to support a larger organization;

 

cover sales and marketing expenses, including a significant expansion of our direct sales organization;

 

cover expenses relating to data collection and consumer privacy compliance, including additional infrastructure, automation and personnel; and

 

explore strategic acquisitions.

Investing in the foregoing, however, may not yield anticipated returns. Consequently, as our costs increase, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.

A significant inadvertent disclosure or breach of confidential and/or personal information we hold, or of the security of our or our customers’, suppliers’, or other partners’ computer systems could be detrimental to our business, reputation and results of operations.

Our business requires the storage, transmission and utilization of data, including personal information, much of which must be maintained on a confidential basis. These activities have made, and may in the future make, us a target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to the data we maintain, including our customer data, or to disrupt our ability to provide service. As a result of the types and volume of personal data on our systems, we believe that we are a particularly attractive target for such breaches and attacks. For example, in 2016, we discovered a breach of information from our Myspace databases resulting in the unauthorized access and offer for sale of approximately 360 million Myspace user account email addresses, usernames, and hashed passwords. See “—We face liabilities arising out of our ownership and operation of Myspace.com.

In recent years, the frequency, severity and sophistication of cyber-attacks, computer malware, viruses, social engineering, and other intentional misconduct by computer hackers has significantly increased, and government agencies and security experts have warned about the growing risks of hackers, cyber criminals and other potential attackers targeting information technology systems. Such third parties could attempt to gain entry to our systems for the purpose of stealing data or disrupting the systems. In addition, our security measures may also be breached due to employee error, malfeasance, system errors or vulnerabilities, including vulnerabilities of our vendors, suppliers, their products, or otherwise. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing sensitive information such as user names, passwords or other information to gain access to our customers’ data or our data, including intellectual property and other confidential business information.

We currently serve the majority of our platform functions from third-party data center hosting facilities operated by Google Cloud Platform and Amazon Web Services. While we and our third-party cloud providers have implemented security measures designed to protect against security breaches, these measures could fail or may be insufficient, particularly as techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, resulting in the unauthorized disclosure, modification, misuse, destruction, or loss of our or our customers’ data or other sensitive information. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches and improper access to or disclosure of the data we maintain, including personal information, could result in litigation, indemnity obligations, regulatory enforcement actions, investigations, fines, penalties, mitigation and remediation costs, disputes, reputational harm, diversion of management’s attention, and other liabilities and damage to our business.

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We believe we have taken appropriate measures to protect our systems from intrusion, but we cannot be certain that advances in criminal capabilities, discovery of new vulnerabilities in our systems and attempts to exploit those vulnerabilities, physical system or facility break-ins and data thefts or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting our systems and the information we possess.

We may incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyber-attacks. Any security breach could result in operational disruptions that impair our ability to meet our customers’ requirements, which could result in decreased revenue. Also, whether there is an actual or a perceived breach of our security, our reputation could suffer irreparable harm, causing our current and prospective customers to reject our products and services in the future, deterring data suppliers from supplying us data or customers from uploading their data on our platform, or changing consumer behaviors and use of our technology. Further, we could be forced to expend significant resources in response to a security breach, including those expended in notifying individuals and providing mitigating services, repairing system damage, increasing cyber security protection costs by deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, and litigating and resolving legal claims or governmental inquiries and investigations, all of which could divert the attention of our management and key personnel away from our business operations. Federal, state and foreign governments continue to consider and implement laws and regulations addressing data privacy, cybersecurity, and data protection laws, which include provisions relating to breaches. For example, statutory damages may be available to users through a private right of action for certain data breaches under the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), and potentially other states’ laws. In any event, a significant security breach could materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition. See “Risks Related to Data Privacy.

Our customers, suppliers and other partners are primarily responsible for the security of their information technology environments, and we rely heavily on them and other third parties to supply clean data content and/or to utilize our products and services in a secure manner. Each of these third parties may face risks relating to cyber security, which could disrupt their businesses and therefore materially impact ours. While we provide guidance and specific requirements in some cases, we do not directly control any of such parties’ cyber security operations, or the amount of investment they place in guarding against cyber security threats. Accordingly, we are subject to any flaw in or breaches of their systems, which could materially impact our business, operating results and financial results.

We allow our customers and suppliers to utilize application programming interfaces, or APIs, with our platform, which could result in outages or security breaches and negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

The use of application programming interfaces, or APIs, by our customers and suppliers has significantly increased in recent years. Our APIs allow customers and suppliers to build their own media buying and data management interface by using our APIs to develop custom integration of their business with our platform. The increased use of APIs increases security and operational risks to our systems, including the risk for intrusion attacks, data theft, or denial of service attacks. Furthermore, while APIs allow customers and suppliers greater ease and power in accessing our platform, they also increase the risk of overusing our systems, potentially causing outages. We have experienced system slowdowns due to customer or supplier overuse of our systems through our APIs. While we have taken measures intended to decrease security and outage risks associated with the use of APIs, we cannot guarantee that such measures will be successful. Our failure to prevent outages or security breaches resulting from API use could result in government enforcement actions against us, claims for damages by consumers and other affected individuals, costs associated with investigation, notification, mitigation, and remediation, damage to our reputation and loss of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Operational and performance issues with our platform, whether real or perceived, including a failure to respond to technological changes or to upgrade our technology systems, may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

We depend upon the sustained and uninterrupted performance of our platform to manage our inventory supply; acquire inventory for each campaign; collect, process and interpret data; and optimize campaign performance in real time and provide billing information to our financial systems. If our platform cannot scale to meet demand, if there are errors in our execution of any of these functions on our platform, or if we experience outages, then our business may be harmed.

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Our platform is complex and multifaceted, and operational and performance issues could arise both from the platform itself or from outside factors, such as cyberattacks or other third party attacks. Errors, failures, vulnerabilities or bugs have been found in the past, and may be found in the future. Our platform also relies on third-party technology and systems to perform properly, and our platform is often used in connection with computing environments utilizing different operating systems, system management software, equipment and networking configurations, which may cause errors in, or failures of, our platform or such other computing environments. Operational and performance issues with our platform could include the failure of our user interface, outages, errors during upgrades or patches, discrepancies in costs billed versus costs paid, unanticipated volume overwhelming our databases, server failure, or catastrophic events affecting one or more server facilities. While we have built redundancies in our systems, full redundancies do not exist. Some failures will shut our platform down completely, others only partially. We provide service level agreements to some of our customers, and if our platform is not available for specified amounts of time, we may be required to provide credits or other financial compensation to our customers.

As we grow our business, we expect to continue to invest in technology services and equipment. Without these improvements, our operations might suffer from unanticipated system disruptions, slow transaction processing, unreliable service levels, impaired quality or delays in reporting accurate information regarding transactions in our platform, any of which could negatively affect our reputation and ability to attract and retain customers. In addition, the expansion and improvement of our systems and infrastructure may require us to commit substantial financial, operational and technical resources, with no assurance our business will grow. If we fail to respond to technological change or to adequately maintain, expand, upgrade and develop our systems and infrastructure in a timely fashion, our growth prospects and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Operational and performance issues with our platform could also result in negative publicity, damage to our brand and reputation, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our platform, increased costs or loss of revenue, loss of the ability to access our platform, loss of competitive position or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. Alleviating problems resulting from such issues could require significant expenditures of capital and other resources and could cause interruptions, delays or the cessation of our business, any of which may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

We are dependent on the continued availability of third-party hosting and transmission services. Operational issues with, or changes to the costs of, our third-party data center providers could harm our business, reputation or results of operations.

We currently serve the majority of our platform functions from third-party data center hosting facilities operated by Google Cloud Platform and Amazon Web Services, and we primarily use shared servers in such facilities. We are dependent on these third parties to provide continuous power, cooling, Internet connectivity and physical and technological security for our servers, and our operations depend, in part, on their ability to protect these facilities against any damage or interruption from natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, power or telecommunication failures, criminal acts and similar events. In the event that any of our third-party facilities arrangements is terminated, or if there is a lapse of service or damage to a facility, we could experience interruptions in our platform as well as delays and additional expenses in arranging new facilities and services.

Any damage to, or failure of, the systems of our third-party providers could result in interruptions to our platform. Despite precautions taken at our data centers, the occurrence of spikes in usage volume, a natural disaster, such as earthquakes or hurricane, an act of terrorism, vandalism or sabotage, a decision to close a facility without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at a facility could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our platform. Even with current and planned disaster recovery arrangements, our business could be harmed. Also, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. These factors in turn could further reduce our revenue, subject us to liability and cause us to issue credits or cause customers to stop using our platform, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business.

We incur significant costs with our third-party data hosting services. If the costs for such services increase due to vendor consolidation, regulation, contract renegotiation, or otherwise, we may not be able to increase the fees for our products and services to cover the changes. As a result, our operating results may be significantly worse than forecasted.

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If the non-proprietary technology, software, products and services that we use are unavailable, have future terms we cannot agree to, or do not perform as we expect, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

We depend on various technology, software, products and services from third parties or available as open source, including for critical features and functionality of our platform and API technology, payment processing, payroll and other professional services. Identifying, negotiating, complying with and integrating with third-party terms and technology are complex, costly and time-consuming matters. Failure by third-party providers to maintain, support or secure their technology either generally or for our accounts specifically, or downtime, errors or defects in their products or services, could materially and adversely impact our platform, our administrative obligations or other areas of our business. Having to replace any third-party providers or their technology, products or services could result in outages or difficulties in our ability to provide our services.

Our failure to meet content and inventory standards and provide services that our customers and inventory suppliers trust, could harm our brand and reputation and negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

We do not provide or control the content of the advertisements we serve or that of the websites providing the inventory. Our customers provide the advertising content and inventory suppliers provide the inventory. Both customers and inventory suppliers are concerned about being associated with content they consider inappropriate, competitive or inconsistent with their brands, or illegal, and they are hesitant to spend money without guaranteed brand security. For example, our customers expect that ad placements will not be misrepresented, such as auto-play in banner placements marketed as pre-roll inventory. Consequently, our reputation depends in part on providing services that our customers and inventory suppliers trust, and we have contractual obligations to meet content and inventory standards. We contractually prohibit the misuse of our platform by agencies (and their marketer customers) and inventory suppliers. Additionally, we use our proprietary technology and third-party services to, and we participate in industry co-ops that work to, detect malware and other content issues as well as click fraud (whether by humans or software known as “bots”) and to block fraudulent inventory. Despite such efforts, our customers may inadvertently purchase inventory that proves to be unacceptable for their campaigns, in which case we may not be able to recoup the amounts paid to inventory suppliers. Preventing and combating fraud is an industry-wide issue that requires constant vigilance, as well as a balancing of cost effectiveness and risk, and we cannot guarantee that we will be fully successful in our efforts to combat fraud. We may provide access to inventory that is objectionable to our customers or we may serve advertising that contains malware or objectionable content to our inventory suppliers, which could harm our or our customers’ brand and reputation, cause customers to decrease or terminate their relationship with us or otherwise negatively impact our business, operating results and financial condition.

We face potential liability and harm to our business based on the human factor of inputting information into our platform.

We or our customers set up campaigns on our platform using a number of available variables. While our platform includes several checks and balances, it is possible for human error to result in significant over-spending. We offer a number of protections such as daily or overall spending caps, but despite these protections, the ability for overspend exists. For example, campaigns which last for a period of time can be set to pace evenly or as quickly as possible. If a customer with a high credit limit enters an incorrect daily cap with a campaign set to a rapid pace, it is possible for a campaign to accidently go significantly over budget. Our potential liability for such errors may be higher when they occur in situations in which we are executing purchases on behalf of a customer rather than the customer using the self-service feature of our platform. While our customer contracts state that customers are responsible for media purchased through our platform, we are ultimately responsible for paying the inventory providers and we may be unable to collect when such issues occur.

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We face liabilities arising out of our ownership and operation of Myspace.com.

In 2011, we acquired Myspace LLC, which owns Myspace.com. We have faced and may continue to face claims or lawsuits or incur liability as a result of content published or made available on Myspace.com, including claims for defamation, intellectual property rights, including copyright infringement, rights of publicity and privacy, illegal content, misinformation, content regulation and personal injury torts. The laws relating to the liability of providers of online products or services for activities of the people who use them remain somewhat unsettled, both within the United States and internationally. This risk is enhanced in certain jurisdictions outside the United States where our protection from liability for third-party actions may be unclear or where we may be less protected under local laws than we are in the United States. For example, in April 2019, the European Union passed a directive expanding online platform liability for copyright infringement and regulating certain uses of news content online, which member states must implement by June 2021. In addition, there have been various Congressional efforts, executive actions, and civil litigation efforts to restrict the scope of the protections available to online platforms under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, and our current protections from liability for third-party content in the United States could decrease or change. We could incur significant costs investigating and defending claims related to content published or made available on Myspace.com and, if we are found liable, could face significant damages.

In 2011, Myspace LLC was the subject of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) relating to its privacy practices. In connection with its settlement of this matter with the FTC in 2012, Myspace LLC agreed to a settlement order that bars Myspace LLC from misrepresenting the extent to which it protects the privacy of users’ personal information or the extent to which it belongs to or complies with any privacy, security or other compliance program. The order also requires that Myspace LLC establish a comprehensive privacy program designed to protect consumers’ information, and to obtain biennial assessments of its privacy program by independent, third-party auditors for 20 years. The order terminates in August 2032. If Myspace LLC fails to comply with the mandates of the FTC consent order, or if Myspace LLC is found to be in violation of the consent order or other requirements, we may be subject to regulatory or governmental investigations or lawsuits, which may result in significant monetary fines, judgments, or other penalties, and we may also be required to make additional changes to our business practices.

Myspace.com has been and may in the future be a source of cybersecurity incidents or data breaches. In 2016, we announced our discovery of a third-party cyber-attack in which Myspace.com usernames, passwords and email addresses were stolen from the old Myspace platform prior to June 11, 2013, when the site was relaunched with significant steps to strengthen account security. While we took steps to remediate the attack, including notifying and invalidating the passwords of known affected users, any further failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches and improper access to or disclosure of the data on the Myspace.com site could result in litigation, indemnity obligations, regulatory enforcement actions, investigations, fines, penalties, mitigation and remediation costs, disputes, reputational harm, diversion of management’s attention, and other liabilities and damage to our business. Myspace.com may also face operational or performance issues. For example, as a result of a server migration project in 2019, older photo, video or audio files of some users were lost.

Myspace.com has in the past been, and may in the future be, the subject of unfavorable publicity regarding, for example, its privacy practices, site quality and site operational matters. Myspace.com may also face negative publicity relating to content or information that is published or made available on the platform, including defamation, dissemination of misinformation or news hoaxes, discrimination, violations of intellectual property rights, violations of rights of publicity and privacy, hate speech or other types of content. Any such negative publicity could damage our reputation and the reputation of our primary business, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

The market growth forecasts included in this Annual Report may prove to be inaccurate and, even if the market in which we compete achieves forecasted growth, we cannot assure you our business will grow at similar rates, if at all.

Market growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates which may not prove to be accurate. The forecasts in this Annual Report relating to expected growth in the digital advertising and programmatic ad markets may prove to be inaccurate. Even if these markets experience the forecasted growth, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our growth is subject to many factors including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties.

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Risks Related to Data Privacy

Changes in legislative, judicial, regulatory, or cultural environments relating to information collection, use and processing may limit our ability to collect, use and process data. Such developments could cause revenue to decline, increase the cost of data, reduce the availability of data and adversely affect the demand for our products and services.

We receive, store and process personal information and other data from and about consumers in addition to personal information and other data from and about our customers, employees, and services providers. Our handling of this data is subject to a wide variety of federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations and is subject to regulation by various government authorities and consumer actions. Our data handling is also subject to contractual obligations and may be deemed to be subject to industry standards.

The U.S. federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed laws relating to the collection, disclosure, processing, use, storage and security of data relating to individuals and households, including the use of contact information and other data for marketing, advertising and other communications with individuals and businesses. In the U.S., various laws and regulations apply to the collection, disclosure, processing, use, storage and security of certain types of data. Additionally, the FTC, many state attorneys general, and many courts are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws as imposing standards for the collection, disclosure, process, use, storage and security of data. The regulatory framework for data privacy issues worldwide is complex, continually evolving and often conflicting, and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. The occurrence of unanticipated events often rapidly drives the adoption of legislation or regulation affecting the use, collection or other processing of data and manner in which we conduct our business. As a result, further restrictions could be placed upon the collection, disclosure, processing, use, storage and security of information, which could result in a material increase in the cost of obtaining certain kinds of data and could limit the ways in which we may collect, disclose, process, use, store or secure information.

U.S. federal and state legislatures, along with federal regulatory authorities, have recently increased their focus on matters concerning the collection and use of consumer data, including relating to interest-based advertising, or the use of data to draw inferences about a user’s interests and deliver relevant advertising to that user, and similar or related practices, such as cross-device data collection and aggregation, and steps taken to de-identify personal data and to use and distribute the resulting data, including for purposes of personalization and the targeting of advertisements. In the U.S., non-sensitive consumer data generally may be used under current rules and regulations, subject to certain restrictions, including relating to transparency and affirmative “opt-out” rights of the collection or use of such data in certain instances. To the extent additional opt-out rights are made available in the U.S., additional regulations are imposed, or if an “opt-in” model were to be adopted, less data would be available, the cost of data and compliance would be higher, or we could be required to modify our data processing practices and policies. For example, California recently enacted legislation, the CCPA, that became operative on January 1, 2020 and came under California Attorney General (“AG”) enforcement on July 1, 2020. The CCPA requires covered companies to, among other things, provide new disclosures to California consumers and grant such consumers a new right to opt-out of “sales” of personal information, a concept that is defined broadly. The CCPA is also subject to regulations issued by the California AG, which were finalized and became effective in August 2020. The California Privacy Rights and Enforcement Act (“CPRA”), which was passed as a ballot initiative in November 2020 and comes into effect on January 1, 2023, expands upon the CCPA and, among other things, creates new categories of personal information with additional protections, creates new data subject rights such as a right of correction, creates a new state rulemaking and enforcement agency for the CPRA, expands potential liability for violations and gives consumers rights to opt out of additional forms of data sharing with third parties. It remains unclear how aspects of the CCPA (as amended by the CPRA) or its implementing regulations will be interpreted. We cannot yet fully predict the impact of these laws on our business or operations, but it or future regulations (particularly any regulations using an “opt-in” model), could require us or our customers to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Decreased availability and increased costs of information and costs of compliance could adversely affect our ability to meet our customers’ expectations and requirements and could result in decreased revenue.

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While our platform and people-based framework operates primarily in the United States, some of our operations, including our owned website Myspace.com, may subject us to data privacy laws outside the United States. In the European Union (“EU”), the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) took effect on May 25, 2018 and applies to our processing related to products and services that we provide to individuals who are in the European Union. The GDPR includes significant penalties for noncompliance of up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of an enterprise’s global turnover (or revenue) for the preceding fiscal year and each European Union Member State may provide for other penalties applicable to such noncompliance.

We are subject to evolving laws and regulations that dictate whether, how, and under what circumstances we, or our data processors, may transfer, process and/or receive certain data, including data shared between countries or regions in which we operate and data shared among our products and services. For example, ongoing legal uncertainty in Europe regarding the transfer of data to the United States could result in further limitations, including in light of the recent Schrems II ruling from the Court of Justice of the European Union dated July 16, 2020. This ruling effectively invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, and while it upheld the Standard Contractual Clauses (“SCCs”) as an alternative mechanism, it requires the parties to the SCCs to ensure that the level of protection required by European Union law is respected, potentially by yet-to-be-clarified supplementary measures. Similarly, legal uncertainty could result in further limitations regarding the United Kingdom, which exited the European Union with the transition period ending on December 31, 2020 (transition period for certain matters scheduled to run through December 31, 2020), in particular in relation to data transfers to and from the United Kingdom. However, as part of the European Union and the United Kingdom’s new trade deal, the European Union allows personal data to flow freely to the United Kingdom for a duration of six months in total as from January 1, 2021 (known as the “bridge”), until an adequacy decision has been adopted by the European Commission. In the unlikely event that no such adequacy decision is adopted by the European Commission at the end of the “bridge” period, we will need to rely on SCCs or other GDPR transfer mechanisms to ensure a lawful transfer of data from the European Economic Area to the United Kingdom. Certain countries outside of the EEA have also passed (e.g. Russia, China) or are considering passing laws requiring local data residency or otherwise impeding the transfer of data across borders. If one or more of the legal bases for transferring data to the U.S. is invalidated, if we are unable to transfer or receive data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, or if we are prohibited from sharing data among our products and services, it could affect the manner in which we provide our services or adversely affect our financial results. Similarly, there are a number of European legislative proposals that could also significantly affect our business. For example, the proposal for a Regulation concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing European Union Directive 2002/58/EC, could impose new obligations or limitations in areas affecting our business, notably with respect to the use of cookies.

In addition to government regulation, self-regulatory standards and other industry standards may legally or contractually apply to us or be argued to apply to us, or we may elect to comply with such standards or to facilitate our customers’ compliance with such standards. Because privacy, data protection, and information security are competitive factors in our industry, we may make statements on our website, in marketing materials, or in other settings about our data security measures and our compliance with, or our ability to facilitate our customers’ compliance with, these standards. We are members of self-regulatory bodies that impose additional requirements related to the collection, use, and disclosure of consumer data. Under the requirements of these self-regulatory bodies, in addition to other compliance obligations, we are obligated to provide all consumers with notice about our use of cookies and other technologies to execute the collection of consumer data and of our collection and use of consumer data for certain purposes, and to provide consumers with certain choices relating to the use of consumer data. Some of these self-regulatory bodies have the ability to discipline members or participants, which could result in fines, penalties, and/or public censure (which could in turn cause reputational harm). Additionally, some of these self-regulatory bodies might refer violations of their requirements to the Federal Trade Commission or other regulatory bodies.

Regulatory investigations and enforcement actions could also impact us. In the U.S., the FTC uses its enforcement powers under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (which prohibits “unfair” and “deceptive” trade practices) to investigate companies engaging in online tracking and the processing of consumer personal information more generally. This is the basis on which the FTC investigated Myspace LLC. See “—We face liabilities arising out of our ownership and operation of Myspace.com.” Advocacy organizations have also filed complaints with data protection authorities against advertising technology companies, arguing that certain of these companies’ practices do not comply with the GDPR. It is possible that investigations or enforcement actions will involve our practices or practices similar to ours.

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Our legal risk depends in part on our customers’ or other third parties’ adherence to privacy laws and regulations and their use of our services in ways consistent with end user expectations. We rely on representations made to us by customers and data suppliers that they will comply with all applicable laws, including all relevant privacy and data protection regulations. Although we make reasonable efforts to enforce such representations and contractual requirements, we do not fully audit our customers’ or data suppliers’ compliance with our recommended disclosures or their adherence to privacy laws and regulations. If our customers or data suppliers fail to adhere to our expectations or contracts in this regard, we and our customers or data suppliers could be subject to adverse publicity, damages, and related possible investigation or other regulatory activity.

Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws, regulations and standards are uncertain, it is possible that these laws, regulations and standards may be interpreted and applied in manners that are, or are asserted to be, inconsistent with our data management practices or the technological features of our products and services. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, investigations, lawsuits and other claims and proceedings, it may be necessary or desirable for us to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products and services, which could have an adverse effect on our business. We may be unable to make such changes or modifications in a commercially reasonable manner or at all. Any inability to adequately address privacy concerns, even if unfounded, or any actual or perceived failure to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws, regulations, standards or policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and harm our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, standards and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our platform. Privacy concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our platform particularly in certain industries and foreign countries.

Adapting our business to the CCPA and its implementing regulations and to the enhanced and evolving privacy obligations in the EU and elsewhere could continue to involve substantial expense and may cause us to divert resources from other aspects of our operations, all of which may adversely affect our business. Further, adaptation of the digital advertising marketplace requires increasingly significant collaboration between participants in the market, such as publishers and marketers. Failure of the industry to adapt to changes required for operating under laws including the CCPA and the GDPR and user response to such changes could negatively impact inventory, data, and demand. We cannot control or predict the pace or effectiveness of such adaptation, and we cannot currently predict the impact such changes may have on our business.

Our business or ability to operate our platform could be impacted by changes in the technology industry by established technology companies or government regulation. Such developments, including the restriction of “third-party cookies,” could cause instability in the advertising technology industry.

Digital advertising and in-app advertising are largely dependent on established technology companies and their operation of the most commonly used Internet browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari), devices and their operating systems (Android and iOS). These companies may change the operations or policies of their browsers, devices and operating systems in a manner that fundamentally changes our ability to operate our platform or collect data. Users of these browsers, devices or operating systems may also adjust their behaviors and use of technology in ways that change our ability to collect data. Digital advertising and in-app advertising are also dependent, in part, on internet protocols and the practices of internet service providers, including IP address allocation. Changes that these providers make to their practices, or adoption of new internet protocols, may materially limit or alter the availability of data. A limitation or alteration of the availability of data in any of these or other instances may have a material impact on the advertising technology industry, which could decrease advertising budgets and subsequently reduce our revenue and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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For example, browser providers have recently enacted changes restricting the use of third-party cookies in their browsers, which may cause instability in the digital advertising market. Execution of digital advertising relies to a significant extent on the use of cookies, pixels and other similar technology, including mobile device identifiers that are provided by mobile operating systems for advertising purposes, which we refer to collectively as cookies, to collect data about users and devices. Although our business is less reliant on cookies than some of our competitors because we do not need cookies for marketers and their advertising agencies to identify consumers with our identity resolution capabilities and identity graph, we do use third-party cookies. Third-party cookies are cookies owned and used by parties other than the owners of the website visited by the Internet user, in connection with our business for execution of obtaining information about consumers, and for delivering digital advertising. In January 2020, Google publicly stated it intends for Chrome to block third-party cookies at some point in the following 24 months. Google has also introduced ad blocking software in its Chrome web browser that will block certain ads based on quality standards established under a multi-stakeholder coalition. Additionally, the Safari browser currently blocks third-party cookies by default